Aging, sadly and ostensibly, is an inevitable facet of existence, culminating in the only foreseeable outcome: death. Yet, science is edging closer to comprehending these intricate mechanisms, and metformin stands out as a potential game-changer in combating the effects of aging. Several animal research studies, involving species such as the worm C. elegans and rodents, have demonstrated positive outcomes regarding aging indicators and overall life span. Moreover, current human clinical trials are evaluating aging parameters and age-related ailments to determine metformin’s influence.
Originating from the biguanide family, metformin was first identified in the 1920s and became a treatment for type 2 diabetes in 1957. It remains a primary remedy for type 2 diabetes patients. Through intricate cellular processes, metformin hampers energy generation within cell mitochondria, thereby reducing blood sugar levels. This effect stems from curtailing liver glucose production, bolstering insulin sensitivity which amplifies cellular glucose absorption, and minimizing gut glucose absorption. Interestingly, its use has expanded beyond diabetes management, venturing into gerontology and anti-aging research.
How Does Metformin Work?
1. ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species)
ROS are residues from standard mitochondrial energy generation and also exist in cellular compartments containing oxidative chemicals meant to eliminate pathogens and outdated cell components. An excess of these chemicals, coupled with insufficient neutralization capabilities, can harm DNA, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids within cells. Such oxidation triggers age-induced harm and inflammation in organs and skin, leading to illnesses like cancer, Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and heart diseases.
Metformin modulates the electron transport chain involved in energy generation, controlling ROS production in mitochondria. It also curbs cell aging and refreshes cells. Additionally, metformin enhances the transcription and output of genes responsible for its antioxidative benefits.
2. Protein Balance
Metformin aids in sustaining protein balance, limiting the synthesis and accumulation of proteins that damage cells. It accelerates the removal of progerin in cells that form body connective tissues. Furthermore, metformin stimulates the creation of beneficial proteins and activates a process known as autophagy, which recycles aged and malfunctioning cell parts.
3. Telomere Impact
Telomeres are DNA end segments protecting coding sequences from harm. However, cell replication reduces telomere length, linking it with aging and decreased life span. Metformin administration in humans has shown to counteract this shortening, restoring telomeres through various identified and speculated methods.
4. Epigenetic Influence
Metformin has a profound role in modulating gene activity via epigenetics, utilizing proteins like histones and DNA methylation to activate or suppress genes. Essentially, metformin fortifies DNA repair, manages gene activity, and protects genetic content from oxidative harm.
5. Microbiome Relations
Both human and animal researches have shown that metformin boosts gut health, diminishes inflammation, averts microbial imbalances, and encourages the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. The exact reasons behind this require further investigation.
Recent studies, along with ongoing TAME trials, highlight metformin’s potential in combating cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and extending life span. This is credited to its ability to neutralize ROS in structures like mitochondria, oversee protein balance and enzyme functionality, and stabilize DNA epigenetically.
Metformin has also shown to:
- Reduce hunger
- Enhance blood lipid profiles and decrease cholesterol
- Boost insulin responsiveness
- Diminish blood sugar
- Renew cells
- Decrease inflammatory agents
- Optimize vascular function.
Given the impacts on metabolism mentioned, metformin could potentially deter or manage metabolic issues like:
- Weight issues
- Heart diseases
Combined with wholesome lifestyle habits like proper sleep, stress management, physical activity, moderate caloric intake, and a balanced diet, metformin’s anti-aging effects could serve as a robust, research-backed supplementary treatment to counter diseases and extend life.
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